PEST SURVEILLANCE

            Plant Protection is an important factor influencing crop production and timely pest surveillance & monitoring are one of the pre requisite for collection of informationís on incidence of pest/disease, in order to execute proper preventive measures to avoid any economic loss to the field crops due to pest/disease. Accordingly farmers are advised for application of chemical pesticides, if the pest population appears above Economic Threshold Level (ETL) (is called action threshold level when the pest population at which control measures should be applied to prevent the pest number from reaching economic injury level (EIL) at which the crop losses cost more than control ).

            The ETL has to be determined for each pest separately in a Designed Proforma and may vary from region to region. Pest surveillance also helps in determining the factors responsible for pest occurrence and also helps in the long run to develop a forecasting system

            The pest management practices are carried out right before planting/sowing to post harvest aimed at outbreak/ prevention by adopting all preventive measures.

            Farmers are only advised that pesticides should not be applied when the natural enemy population is active and abundant so that they can be conserved. In the state the pest and disease surveillance work is carried out round the year on field crops by the officers/official of the state Department of Agriculture.

Pest surveillance agencies  

The district level team comprising of officers/official of state department and expert scientists of State Agriculture University (SAU) has been constituted to conduct the pest & disease surveillance on the field crops.

Random Rapid Roving surveys are also conduced by the team of Govt. of India from Directorate of Quarantine and Storage from time to time and surveillance reports are circulated by GOI to the states for initiating the required necessary action to curb the pest/disease menace.

The scientists of state Agriculture University also conduct the surveillance work and advise the state Department of Agriculture for adopting the right course of action or adoption of IPM technology.  

 Farmers are also Educated by the Extension Staff on the following issues :

 

1.      Detection of pests, diseases, weeds etc, and prompt reporting of the same to the Agriculture
    Development Officer, Circle Agriculture Officer, Sub Div. Agri. Officer and Deputy Director
    of Agriculture.

 

2.      Preventive measures against pests, diseases and weeds.

 

3.      Efficient/proper use of plant protection equipment.

 

4.      Effective monitoring regarding availability of pesticides.

 

5.      Precautions needed in handling of pesticides/fungicides and weedicides.

 

6.      Disposal off empty containers/ packets of pesticides.

 

7.       Rearing/ multiplication of beneficial insects.

 

        
A calendar for surveillance of pest and disease relating to major field crops is as under: 

           CALENDAR OF SURVEILLANCE OF PESTS AND DISEASES OF KHARIF AND RABI CROPS 

Month

Crop

Pest and disease

April

Sugarcane

White ants, Root and Top borer, Black bug

May

-do-

White ants Root and top borer, Pyrilla, black bug, red mites

 

Cotton

Whitefly, hairy caterpillar, Heliothis Jassid, Aphid

June

Sugarcane

Black bug, Red Mites, Pyrilla

 

Cotton

Jassid, White fly, Thrips and spotted boll worm angular leaf spot

 

Rice

Grass hopper, sucking insects and bacterial leaf blight

July

Sugarcane

Gurdaspur borer and other borers

 

Cotton

Jassid, hairy caterpillar, semi looper spotted boll worm, leaf roller, angular leaf spot

 

Bajra

Grass hopper and caterpillar, downy mildew, anthracnose.

 

Maize

Maize borer,

 

Rice

Grass hopper, bacterial leaf blight and caterpillar

August & September

Sugarcane

Borers, Pyrilla and white fly

 

Cotton

Jassid, hairy caterpillar, semi looper spotted bollworm, leaf roller, anthracnose and Heliothis.

 

Bajra

Grass hopper, gray weevil and caterpillar, ergot smut and downy mildew

 

Rice

Grass hopper, blight, blast, stem borer

 

Maize

Borer, downy mildew

 

Pulses

Jassid, white fly, beetles and mosaic disease

October

Mustard

Painted bug, saw fly, Heliothis

 

Toria

Aphid, Heliothis

 

Sugarcane

Pyrilla, white fly and shoot borer

November

Wheat

Termites, grass hopper & gujhia weevil Armyworm

 

Mustard

Painted bug, saw fly, leaf minor, Aphid & Heliothis

 

Gram

Termites, cut worms & Heliothis

 

Barley

Termites, grass hopper, gujhia weevil & molya disease.

December

Mustard

Aphid, white rust, leaf minor

 

Gram

Termites, cut worms, stem rot, root rot & Heliothis

 

Wheat

Termites and nematodes, Army worms

 

Barley

Termites, grass hopper & molya disease

January

Wheat

Loose smut, wheat rusts & mamni, Karnal bunt

 

Gram

Termites, pod borer, wilt, blight, stem rot and root rot and stunt virus

 

Mustard

Aphid, white rust, Alternaria leaf blight and leaf minor.

 

Barley

Covered smut, rusts and aphid

February

Wheat

Loose smut, rust, termites, mamni and rats

 

Gram

Pod borer, wilt blights and stunt virus

 

Barley

Rust and covered smut

 

Mustard

Aphid, white rust, Alternaria leaf blight

March

Wheat

Loose smut, rust, mamni Termites and rats

 

Gram

Pod borer, wilt and mamni

 

Barley

Rust and covered smut.

 

Sugarcane

Termites, stem/shoot borer and root borer.